Nano-science is a part of science that studies small stuff, it’s not biology, physics or chemistry, it’s all sciences that work with the very small. Nanotechnology is the art and science of making useful stuff that does stuff on the nanometer length scale and includes advances in all industries, including the electronic, chemical, and pharmaceutical (Table 1).
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. Nanotechnology is sometimes referred to as a general-purpose technology. That's because in its advanced form it will have significant impact on almost all industries and all areas of society. It will offer better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general. A key understanding of nanotechnology is that it offers not just better products, but a vastly improved manufacturing process. The power of nanotechnology can be encapsulated in an apparently simple device called a personal nanofactory that may sit on your countertop or desktop. Packed with miniature chemical processors, computing, and robotics, it will produce a wide-range of items quickly, cleanly, and inexpensively, building products directly from blueprints. Nowadays, nanotechnology have great impact on development of wide range area of science and technology including; Information Technology (IT) that provide smaller, faster, more energy efficient and powerful computing and other IT-based systems; Energy that provide more efficient and cost effective technologies for energy production such as in solar cells, fuel cells, batteries, and bio fuels; Consumer Goods that provide foods and beverages for advanced packaging materials, sensors, and lab-on-chips for food quality testing, appliances and textiles for stain proof, water proof and wrinkle free textiles, household and cosmetics for self-cleaning and scratch free products, paints, and better cosmetics; Medicine that provide technology for imaging, cancer treatment, medical tools, drug delivery, diagnostic tests, and drug development [1-7]. Table 2 shows brief history of development of nanotechnology.
2. Size Matters
It’s not just how big you are, it’s what you can do with it (Figure 1). Nanoscale Size Effect can be summarized as following:
• Realization of miniaturized devices and systems while providing more functionality
• Attainment of high surface area to volume ratio
• Manifestation of novel phenomena and properties, including changes in:
- Physical Properties (e.g. melting point)
- Chemical Properties (e.g. reactivity)
- Electrical Properties (e.g. conductivity)
- Mechanical Properties (e.g. strength)
- Optical Properties (e.g. light emission)
For instance, when carbon is a pure solid it is found as graphite or diamond. On the nano scale, carbon takes on very different structures and therefore provides different properties (Figure 2).
Nano is a prefix that means very, very, small. The word nano is from the Greek. Word ‘Nanos’ meaning Dwarf. It is a prefix used to describe "one billionth" of something, or 0.000000001. Nanoscience is a part of science that studies small stuff. It’s not biology, physics or chemistry. It’s all sciences that work with the very small. Nanotechnology is the art and science of making useful stuff that does stuff on the nanometre length scale and includes advances in all industries, including the electronic, chemical, pharmaceutical, and medical. Figure 2 illustrate the scale of nanoscience while Figure 3 shows the importance of size matter in nature. Table 3 summarize nanoscale materials.
Nanofabrication aims at building nanoscale structures (0.1–100 nm), which can act as components, devices, or systems with desired properties, performance, reliability, reproducibility, in large quantities at low cost. Nanofabrication is used in several industrial applications including:
Micro-electro-mechanical (MEMs) devices
About 1020 transistors (or 10 billion for every person in the world) are manufactured every year based on VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration), ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration), and GSI (Giga-Scale Integration). Variations of this versatile technology are used for flat-panel displays, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), as well as for chips for DNA screening. More conventional applications of nanofabrication can be seen in the information storage of computers, cell phones, and digital sound and images. Nano structure and device can be accomplished by two approaches; top down and bottom up methods.